Ubuntu provides a very clean and simple look desktop without any icons. This post will present how to add some icons such as My Computer, User's Home, ..

Step 1: launch a configuration editor
Hit Alt-F2 and type gconf-editor into Run application dialog and click Run

Step 2: select icons which you prefer
Select "apps" from the left pane; then select "nautilus" and "desktop." In the right pane, you can choose any icons which will be seen on the desktop. For example, I want show icons for my computer and home directory, so I have checked on onptions like the following picture.

And this is the result on my desktop.